Importance of Computer Forensics

Computer forensics is the process of using the latest knowledge of science and technology with computer sciences to collect, analyze and present proofs to the criminal or civil courts. Network administrator and security staff administer and manage networks and information systems should have complete knowledge of computer forensics. The meaning of the word “forensics” is “to bring to the court”. Forensics is the process which deals in finding evidence and recovering the data. The evidence includes many forms such as finger prints, DNA test or complete files on computer hard drives etc. The consistency and standardization of computer forensics across courts is not recognized strongly because it is new discipline.

It is necessary for network administrator and security staff of networked organizations to practice computer forensics and should have knowledge of laws because rate of cyber crimes is increasing greatly. It is very interesting for mangers and personnel who want to know how computer forensics can become a strategic element of their organization security. Personnel, security staff and network administrator should know all the issues related to computer forensics. Computer experts use advanced tools and techniques to recover deleted, damaged or corrupt data and evidence against attacks and intrusions. These evidences are collected to follow cases in criminal and civil courts against those culprits who committed computer crimes.

The survivability and integrity of network infrastructure of any organization depends on the application of computer forensics. In the current situations computer forensics should be taken as the basic element of computer and network security. It would be a great advantage for your company if you know all the technical and legal aspects of computer forensics. If your network is attacked and intruder is caught then good knowledge about computer forensics will help to provide evidence and prosecute the case in the court.

There are many risks if you practice computer forensics badly. If you don’t take it in account then vital evidence might be destroyed. New laws are being developed to protect customers’ data; but if certain kind of data is not properly protected then many liabilities can be assigned to the organization. New rules can bring organizations in criminal or civil courts if the organizations fail to protect customer data. Organization money can also be saved by applying computer forensics. Some mangers and personnel spent a large portion of their IT budget for network and computer security. It is reported by International Data Corporation (IDC) that software for vulnerability assessment and intrusion detection will approach $1.45 billion in 2006.

As organizations are increasing in number and the risk of hackers and contractors is also increase so they have developed their own security systems. Organizations have developed security devices for their network like intrusions detection systems (IDS), proxies, firewalls which report on the security status of network of an organization. So technically the major goal of computer forensics is to recognize, gather, protect and examine data in such a way that protects the integrity of the collected evidence to use it efficiently and effectively in a case. Investigation of computer forensics has some typical aspects. In first area computer experts who investigate computers should know the type of evidence they are looking for to make their search effective. Computer crimes are wide in range such as child pornography, theft of personal data and destruction of data or computer.

Second, computer experts or investigators should use suitable tools. The investigators should have good knowledge of software, latest techniques and methods to recover the deleted, encrypted or damaged files and prevent further damage in the process of recovery. In computer forensics two kinds of data are collected. Persistent data is stored on local disk drives or on other media and is protected when the computer is powered off or turned off. Volatile data is stored in random access memory and is lost when the computer is turned off or loses power. Volatile data is located in caches, random access memory (RAM) and registers. Computer expert or investigator should know trusted ways to capture volatile data. Security staff and network administrators should have knowledge about network and computer administration task effects on computer forensics process and the ability to recover data lost in a security incident.


Computer Forensics

Welding Certification Tests For Boilermakers

A very common welding certification test for boilermakers is a 2 inch schedule 120 tube welded in a 6G position using Tig for the root and second pass, and stick welding for the filler passes and cover passes.

Sound Simple? If you think it’s simple, you are wrong.

A 2″ pipe done in a 6G position means that the pipe is placed with the axis of the pipe running 45 degrees from parallel. Once the test begins, it cannot be rolled, raised, or lowered.

That means you have to be able to position yourself in a way that allows you to move as you weld to move from the bottom, up the side, and to the top. That sometimes means starting out in the kneeling position, moving to a halfway standing bent over position, and then standing. All while trying to maintain a consistent arc length while moving at a steady even speed. This is the kind of welding that separates the men from the boys.

Whoever selected the 6g position for welding certification tests was either totally incompetent or an evil genius.

6G welding certification tests for boilermakers are used because they test the welders skill and because a 6g weld test qualifies for all other positions.

Its impractical to test a welder in the field doing the exact job that will be done once the welder is certified.

The 6G test is often considered the best way to cull the not so great welders and hire the best ones.

(although a 2G along with a 5G might be better)

Another reason 2 inch pipe is used for a weld test is that boiler tubes are often the same diameter as the test and they are also often welded while installed and next to other boiler tubes. Welding a 2 inch tube is hard enough with nothing in your way. Put another boiler tube just inches away on each side and the weld is much harder to do.

Testing using a 6G test gives some indication that a welder can weld from both sides of a joint.

I took a 6g test once and then welded a whole bunch of 2g and 5g tube joints in a fab shop. Never did a 6G for the whole year I worked there. So in my case, a 2g and a 5g test would have been more representative of the work done.


Certification Tests